The Screamo Signature: Beloved’s “Failure On” (ROP Throwback)

Solid State Records alumni Beloved only spent a few years in the spotlight, but during that short period, they created a single full-length album that has withstood the test of time (as well as the disbandment of its creators). It’s a remarkable glimpse at the building blocks of sound to a widely-followed movement that took the early 2000s by storm. Though many bands stuck around longer and produced more music, Beloved’s 2003 release Failure On remains a poster child for the Screamo genre–and the characteristics that make it such a unique form of rock and roll.

Failure On opens with a bright, warm tone in “Failure On My Lips.” Within seconds, singer Josh Moore and vocalist/drummer Joe Musten establish their powerful sonic chemistry–a sound that will remain the prized jewel of the entire album. This leads into the heavier track “Only Our Faces Hide,” then the more mellow “Rise & Fall.” Both songs, though different in structure, maintain a sound and style that becomes signature throughout all of Failure On.

“Death to Traitors” is the next track, possibly the best to spawn from the project. The brilliance of this song stems from a combination of the unique tempo changes and Josh Moore and Joe Musten’s spellbinding performances. Their ability to carry this band vocally as a duo is largely what makes Failure On such an astounding record, and it’s displayed perfectly in this anthem. The words are empowering and raw, revealing the band members’ belief that there is something in life worth fighting for: “We were born for battle. Without vision, we will die. We were born for battle against the tide of compromise. We were born for battle. Without vision, we will die. There is life in this.”

“Defect From Decay,” “Watching the Lines Blur,” and “Inner Pattern” come next. Though heard in abundance throughout the album, “Inner Pattern” in particular showcases their precise and genius use of melodic guitar. The band hosts three guitar players, which is somewhat unusual. This breeds a full, glistening sheen over each track.

“Aimless Endeavor” is where the album peeks, and this song packs a powerful punch. It’s Josh Moore who really shines here, bringing his all and proving once again that, more than anything, the vocalists of this band are the cornerstones of its sound. The album winds down with “Allure” and “Insult to Injury,” both of which are capable closers to an excellently sculpted piece of art.

There are plenty of other screamo albums that will go down in history as truly exceptional. Though Beloved’s Failure On is often overlooked due to the band’s quick career, it’ strong signature sound is what has solidified it as timeless. In a sea of faces, it may not be the most well-known, but it might just be one of the greatest in composition, delivery, and tone. Beloved fans hope for a day when the band will announce a reunion; in 2016, it was even teased by former members. But until then, everyone treasures the small portion of music they left behind. It may be the only full-length project listeners have from the band, but what better project to cling to than one as masterfully executed as Failure On.

You can listen to this album on Spotify and Apple Music.

Faith, Hope And Love Exists Between The Shadows: ‘The Space Between The Shadows’ By Scott Stapp

The personal trials of former Creed frontman Scott Stapp have been well-documented over the years, from substance abuse struggles to mental illness. He has worked hard to overcome these challenges, and it is through this lens that The Space Between The Shadows was born.

Stapp brings a level of energy and passion to his third album that is consistent with what Creed fans became accustomed to hearing on songs like “One Last Breath” and “What’s This Life For.” The Space Between The Shadows kicks off with a rocker in “World I Used To Know.” Vocally, Stapp is still firing on all cylinders as he demonstrates his range out of the gate. As is evident throughout, this song sets the stage for a theme of dealing with and overcoming pain and trials, while he returns to his grunge/alt rock roots.

“Name” is a passionate song that is both a reminiscent reflection of what it feels like to be fatherless, wrapped up in a promise not to repeat the past.

“Purpose For Pain” is an anthemic celebration about seeking and finding meaning in pain and trials. The song is sure to be an instant hit among fans and features an impressive guitar solo. The verse talks about a battle, while the chorus is drawing lines in the sand and staking claim to fighting on.

There’s gotta be more
‘Cause this life is insane
Gotta turn this around
And find the purpose for pain
There’s so much to lose
Yeah, there’s so much at stake
Gotta turn this around
And find the purpose for pain.

No Scott Stapp album would be complete without a few southern rock ballads. “Heaven In Me” is the first of these, a beautifully composed and performed piece about finding good and positive inside despite having made mistakes. “Red Clouds” is another southern rock ballad that continues with the theme of being cleansed and overcoming a storied past. The chorus talks about a washing rain to set us free.

The album quickly shifts back into high gear with “Survivor.” The theme and sound on this make it difficult not to draw comparisons to “Overcome” by Creed. While “Overcome” was about having a right to come back from despair, “Survivor” is about having actually done so.

“Wake Up Call” and “Mary’s Crying” are ballads that provide moments of quiet reflection and meditation on an otherwise intense album. Then Stapp keeps the party rocking with my favorite tune on the album, “Face Of The Sun.” For me, this song is about chasing your dreams and living your best life even if everyone around you says it’s impossible.

Fly like a flame through the face of the sun
Rise with the fire till the battle is won
Blind to what the world says can never be done
Fight until the end
In the name of love.

As the project takes a turn into the final stretch, “Gone Too Soon” is a goodbye to a loved one who passed on to eternity, reflecting on missed chances to connect and looking forward to joining them in heaven. That solemn tune is followed by “Ready To Love,” a declaration that it is time to love those around us well while we have the chance.

“Last Hallelujah” closes out the album as a testimony of Stapp’s beliefs.  The second verse is a clear declaration of faith:

Walking on water in a raging storm
I could see the face of a man with a crown of thorns
In the distance I can hear a voice
And it’s calling me, it’s calling me.”

The Space Between The Shadows is Scott Stapp at his best as he delivers thought-provoking stories of facing life struggles of many kinds, while weaving together messages of faith, hope, and love to provide solid ground on which to fight these battles.

Find The Space Between Shadows on Spotify and Apple Music.

Related Artists: Creed, Alter Bridge, Eric Van Zant

Rusty Shipp Drops New Grunge Rocker ‘Breaking Waves’

Nashville-based indie rockers Rusty Shipp have released a new single and accompanying music video. “Breaking Waves” delivers a return to 90s grunge with a song full of driving beats by drummer AJ Newton and a solo by guitarist Eli Apperson.

“Breaking Waves” is a fun and catchy tune with lyrical depth that is intended to preview the overall themes on their upcoming sophomore album. According to a press release, the song “describes the war between technology and nature and is the first glimpse into their new album, a concept album about sea mine terrorism.”

The latest single from Rusty Shipp is in line with their mission to make creative and catchy music with lyrics that will fill people with excitement and wonder, breathing new life into the legacy of rock. “Breaking Waves” is the first single off their upcoming record, Liquid Exorcist, and the first new release since their debut album, Mortal Ghost (Spotify, Apple Music).

Keep up with Rusty Shipp by visiting them at or by following them on Facebook, Instagram or Twitter.

We recommend Rusty Shipp for fans of Grammatrain, Stavesacre, and Poor Old Lu.

An Honest Experience: ‘Above the Ashes’ by Living Scars

In their highly-anticipated second album, Living Scars has created an interesting amalgamation of theatrical and heavy sounds with a dash of electronic sprinkled beneath. Above the Ashes is not only a collection of good songs; this entire album is an experience, from start to finish.

The piano and strings on “Recalibrate” build up anticipation with the help of gentle drum samples that lead into the fulfillment of the full band joining the mix. The song keeps the feeling of an intense theatrical score all the way through, finishing abruptly with the screams of bassist Adam Renteria stating the album’s theme with the words “When the darkness comes, we will rise above the ashes.”

“Fall in Line” begins with a catchy, driving riff from guitarist Austin Schroeder. The heaviness remains throughout the rest of the piece, only fully backing off for the first appearance of the refrain. Vocalist Parker Crook demonstrates his dynamic voice throughout this piece, going from soaring falsetto to classic hard rock cleans. Lyrically, this song focuses on making the decision to live like Christ, even when it seems better to fall in line with the rest of the world.

The music intensifies with help from Chandler Crooks’ drum work in “Monument.” There’s a raw feeling of betrayal buried in both the music and the lyrics. The song ends with a breakdown that pairs well with the intro to the next track, “Wide Awake.” The mood easily shifts into a raging fight song that displays lyrics such as “I’ll stand for something and fall for nothing.”

“Escape” brings a theatrical sound reminiscent of Within Temptation; the music perfectly fits with the regretful desperation in the lyrics:

And I know what I’ve done
I spilled all the blood
And I want to change
Help me escape.”

Including guest vocals from Amongst the Giants’ Brian Boyd, “Hollow” is another anthem of pain and betrayal. The vocals compliment each other while the track beautifully melds radio rock and heavy metal breakdowns into a masterpiece.

The album slows for a bit with another perfect song pairing in “Misery” and “Deceived.” These two songs create an interlude of painfully beautiful honesty about humanity’s inherent weakness. “(Sic)” rounds off the interlude with an exquisite instrumental that perfectly leads into the escalating introduction to “Breakdown.” The invigorating music matches the words, ascending from the depths of the previous few songs:

I feel it coursing through my veins
The pressure’s rising, it’s okay
‘Cause it brings me right to you.”

“Into the Dark” is a determined war anthem featuring tasteful hints of synth among blaring guitars and raging drums. The intensity grows as the title track begins. “Above the Ashes” encapsulates the album’s theme in a passionate blend of heavy metal and uncompromising lyrics, fading into completion with a delicate score similar to the previous mellower songs.

The album officially finishes with a mashup of two previously released songs in “Broken Change (Crooked Remix).” Although the upbeat electronic sound doesn’t blend with the rest of the album, it’s an equally excellent bonus tune that’s worth a listen.

Above the Ashes is a masterpiece that honestly explores the depths of the human experience. The music feels like pain, betrayal, and triumph; the lyrics outline an epic journey of running away, repeatedly failing to stand alone, and finally returning home.

Take my life into your hands
Leave my memories in the past
Open the door to a world with so much more
Watch me rise above the ashes.”

Find Above the Ashes on Spotify and Apple Music

Related Artists: Memphis May Fire, Amongst the Giants, Red

Boundless Creativity and Intensity: ‘Voices’ by Death Therapy

In 2017, the two man metal band Death Therapy released their debut album The Storm Before The Calm. The album displayed the vision of founder and vocalist Jason Wisdom: to “approach the unapproachable in both style and substance.”

With their sophomore release, Death Therapy has blended an explosion of sound that pushes boundaries the of heavy metal while telling compelling and spiritually moving stories of hope that are sure to encourage and challenge listeners from all walks of life.

Voices starts off softly and compellingly with “The Vice of Voices,” setting a dark and dissonant tone musically before building into an otherwise anthemic introduction. “My Defiance” is a rocker featuring Josh Kincheloe of Glasslands, displaying how the album melds impressive rhythmic guitars with steady beats on the percussion. The harmony on the chorus balances out the unclean vocals as the album theme of standing up to the darkness in the world begins to take shape:

“This is my defiance
I’ll stand face to face with the giants
And I won’t blink.”

The who’s who of guest vocalists continues on “Feels Like Fiction” as Silent Planet lead singer Garrett Russell collaborates on this passion-filled track. This driving tune is about overcoming doubt and unbelief in a time of pain and struggle, featuring an intensity filled post-hook that is sure to move a doubting soul into a place of resolve.

“I’m sick of waiting
Tired of falling asleep
With all of those fears and failures
Deep inside of me.”

“The Reckoning” leads with deep bass and catchy synthesizer vibes, adding still another unique element to the album’s progressive sound. Lyrically, this song continues to explore standing up for our beliefs and being a voice during this time of reckoning. “The Instability of Proto Man” is a fun instrumental break that is reminiscent of a horror film-esque soundtrack, with plenty of synth and organ-like sounds mixing in with the traditional rock instruments.

“It’s Okay” is a song about forgiveness– not only forgiving others, but finding strength to forgive oneself. The tune features Matt Baird of Spoken, who adds impressive melodious range on the chorus, rocking the high notes as only he is able to.

“Resist the Eclipse” is a continuation of the enigmatic and dissonant mood, but offers more of a ballad sound with smooth vocals on the verses.  This tune is about being a voice for the hopeless and not allowing the eclipse to cast a shadow over those in need.

The last two tracks are a two part composition to close out this beautifully intense album. “Darkening Counsel Part I: Overture” is a symphonic masterpiece blending the sounds of a symphony hall orchestra into a lead-up to “Darkening Counsel Part II: Inquisition.” The orchestra is deafened as a spoken word starts off this ten minute thriller of a closer.

Musically, Voices carries a mysterious theme with a lot of intensity and energy provided through the experimentation with a variety of sounds. This is among the more creative heavy metal projects currently on the market, and Death Therapy pulls off this explosion of sound on Voices with expertise and attention to detail.

The dissonant musical style lends well to a charged theme of finding positive voices which shine a light in the midst of seemingly impenetrable darkness. Listeners will experience the full spectrum of emotions on this one but leave full of hope as Death Therapy reminds us that there is a divine light in the dark.

Find Voices on Apple Music and Spotify.

Related Artists: RED, Spoken, Solamors

A Redemptive Collision: Seventh Day Slumber’s ‘Closer to Chaos’

Seventh Day Slumber is at the forefront of what seems to be a resurgence– both in Christian rock as a whole, and in their own personal music and ministry. The band’s last album Found released in 2017, full of songs that saw a kind of spiritual homecoming for the band, centered on experiencing God’s grace again after a period of darkness. This summer’s follow-up seems to turn those foundational messages back and apply them to a world that is, both externally and internally for many listeners, spinning truly Closer to Chaos.

“Alive Again” sets the tone for the whole album with its gritty verses and soaring chorus, sinking deep into the tension of a desperate desire for life to collide with the places where we feel most broken. The song also makes it clear that this will be a rock record, with riffs standing front and center.

“Cold Kiss Embrace” and “Burning an Empire” bring us into the heart of the chaos, the internal pressure and societal decay that can bring us to a place of desperation. Each song is led by Joseph Rojas’s signature gritty vocals, delivering performances that bring weight to each topic he addresses. “Light it Up” serves as a note of defiance to addiction and destructive habits. Swaggering “Drama” bows out of harmful relationship patterns.

Sonically, the guitars here feel the most full, developed, and intentional of any Seventh Day Slumber record yet, under the careful guidance of Jeremy Holderfield (who also produced the project). “Man Down” comes from the perspective of someone who has reached the absolute end of themselves, a theme that rides waves of beautifully textured electric and acoustic guitar above a persistent bass line from Ken Reed.

Another notable musical facet to Closer to Chaos is the contributions of drummer Blaise Rojas, who at just 17 has already been playing with the band for 4 years. His drum fills round out the tracks, but his songwriting contributions make an appearance too on songs like “The Letter.” This raw, visceral song plays almost like a sequel to Seventh Day classic “Chris’ Letter,” updated for a new generation perhaps even more urgently in need of a reminder that they’re not alone.

“‘I think you’d be better off if I wasn’t here
I’m writing you for the last time,
Been hurting for years,’
said the page stained with tears.”

That kind of confessional has always been crucial to the core of who Seventh Day Slumber is. Their refusal to shy away from the full reality of human pain allows them to offer a hope that doesn’t feel ignorant or empty. “Sober” takes a raw look at addiction, at the tantalizing temptation of going numb, at how difficult it is to do the hard work of healing instead of just coping. But between “The Letter” and “Sober” stands “Still Breathing,” a song of honest surrender crying to God “breathing, You’re keeping me alive / my heart’s still beating, You brought me back to life.” The album wraps with “Your Eyes,” a song which juxtaposes the worst places we find ourselves in with the truth of our identity in the eyes of a God who loves us enough to choose to be with us in the loneliest places.

Occasionally a band puts out a record that feels like somehow the truest version of themselves, like they’ve laser-focused in on all the things they’ve always wanted to sing. Closer to Chaos feels like that for Seventh Day Slumber. Every song is heavy both musically and thematically, taking on raw pain with visceral guitar riffs and vocals. The scale of the heartbreak addressed on Closer to Chaos is massive, but the hope of redemption claimed as truth is even bigger still.

You can find Closer to Chaos on iTunes and Spotify.

Breaking Boundaries and Brutal Honesty: ‘Feels Like Home’ by UnMasked

Florida rap-rock trio, UnMasked, have knocked it out of the park with their third album since 2017, Feels Like Home. With a unique blend of Thousand Foot Krutch and NF with a little Eminem sprinkled in, UnMasked is breaking genre boundaries with a sound both hip-hop and rock fans can get behind.

The album opens with energetic hip-hop and heavy guitars in “Fahrenheit.” The voice of the guitarist, Josh, echoes through the breaks in the beautifully crafted chaos; the refrain steps into the mind of a person with social anxiety: “It’s getting hot in here / somebody crack a window / so I can vent my fears / to someone who’s in control.”

“Ain’t My Game” keeps the high energy going with a combination of speedy rhymes from Jeremiah “Zero” and steady beats from drummer Jeff. This song center on the transparency of the band through the many masks artists are influenced to wear.

While the raps remain fast, the beat thins and tempo slows in “Better Things.” The rap gets real, breaking into the mentality of ostracized individuals driven to the edge: “You scare me / You jamming me to bits / I can’t take another hit / And all I ever did to you was be different / How do you feel now?”

The next two tracks slow way down. A stripped down beat and acoustic guitar guide the brutally honest depiction of the music industry in the lyrics for “I Get It.” The album’s interlude “Feel For Me” stands out from the remainder of the album, featuring little more than clean vocals with a piano accompaniment. It’s a beautiful melody filled with raw pain from a depressed soul.

The album picks up the pace again with catchy rhymes and beats in “Updown.” The heavy riffs and hard rock tone come full force into the mix with “Ctrl C” and “Yeah.” The latter of the two is purely an energy booster; however, “Ctrl C” is an anthem of resistance, calling out: “We won’t, we won’t, we won’t compromise!”

Retreating back into the feel of classic hip-hop, “Night-Night” pulls you in to the realm of self-doubt and questioning that lives in the darkness when sleep refuses to come. The lyrics of this one remain as genuine as the rest of the album: “Can’t hide from the thoughts around / Can’t hide in the dark from sound / Can’t write when the ink is out / The light’s getting closer now.”

“Possibilities” begins with a passionate speech; the mood continues to grow while the song explores the concept of rising from rock bottom. It’s a song that encourages the listener to think deeper, while also perfectly setting up the album’s conclusion, “Feels Like Home.” With a nostalgic mood set by the cello of Tate Olsen (Skillet), the title track is a bittersweet look at the transition between innocence and the changes of adulthood. The song finishes with a glimpse of comfort in the words:

“I didn’t know you, but now that I do
I’ll walk beside you, my friend.”

With a variety of emotions and messages packed deep within every song, UnMasked has created an album that feels like life. Their strong convictions and brutal honesty mixed with a unique sound makes them stand out from the pack. This trio is definitely a band to keep an eye on.

Find Feels Like Home on Spotify and Apple Music

Related Artists: Thousand Foot Krutch, NF, Eminem

Personal and Musical Growth: Oh, The Horror! By Gold Frankincense & Myrrh

We are in the midst of a musical landscape that where it is increasingly difficult to thrive as a heavy faith-based band without having some level of pre-established name recognition or a backer. This context makes what is transpiring with the rising band of teenage sisters from Florida turn heads.

In 2010 Gold, Frankincense & Myrrh (GFM) released their debut album Identity Crisis and began playing shows at local venues. Over the last eight years, GFM has increased their touring schedule and built a solid international fan base.

Their latest release, Oh, The Horror!, demonstrates growth as they explore deep subject matters and introduce fans to an edgier brand of what they have self identified as “beautycore.” The album features a tight sound from musicians who are fine tuning their craft, more screaming vocals, and a continuation of the familiar melodic harmonies that only siblings can provide.

“Give Me A Sign” kicks it off as up-tempo tune that plays like a fun punk rocker, featuring vocalists CJ and Maggie harmonizing while Lulu provides a steady hand on the drums. Lyrically, the song is a cry for help from someone stuck in place and running out of time:

“Give me a sign, I need something to not give up the fight
Cause I’m lost, down to nothing, just trying to survive
It feels like I’m stuck and going nowhere fast
My life is on the line, I’m running out of time
Give me a sign.”

GFM begins to explore a more mature brand of metal with “The Other Side.” This song features thick and meaty guitars, heavier dragging percussion and increased dissonance. Lyrically, the song asks whether it is really possible to find something better, only to resolve that the grass is never greener on the other side. This is a lesson that takes a lifetime for many to learn, a subject tackled by Solomon in the biblical book of Ecclesiastes as he declared that there is nothing new under the sun.

They lighten up the mood with “R.I.P.,” a fun fight song cowritten with Josiah Prince (Disciple) that is sure to be a favorite in live sets. The pre-chorus is a hooky chant leading into a stand-up declaration that GFM is not going away any time soon.

The edgy metal sound returns on “Never Again” as they literally scream back at their doubters. They are seemingly planting a flag firmly in the ground, declaring that they are comfortable in their identity– they no longer have an identity crisis.

“I will stand my ground, I won’t apologize for who I am
You will never break me, You will never break me.”

“On the Inside” follows as an anthemic rocker celebrating beauty that goes beyond the surface level, the strength and character that is found within that can’t be taken away even though we may get scars and flaws on our body.

“Can You Promise Me That This Will Never End” wraps the package in a neat bow, tying the theme of the album– growth, maturity, confidence in our identity, and finding a place in the world– together nicely while staking their claim as a staple in the hard music landscape for the foreseeable future.

The GFM sisters brought their A game on Oh, The Horror! as they continue to make music that is not only fun to listen to, but speaks truth to our souls and encourages confidence in who we are as people.

Oh, The Horror! can be found on iTunes and Spotify.

Pushing the Limits On Album Eleven: Native Tongue by Switchfoot

Switchfoot has solidified their place in the music world over the course of eleven albums after first becoming household name with the anthems “Meant to Live” and “Dare You to Move.” One might think that with a career spanning 23 years they would be locked into a sound and not pushing boundaries. Switchfoot however has never shied away from expressing their thoughts emphatically or exploring new ways to express their musicality.

Native Tongue begins with the raucous “Let it Happen.” This song has a driving melody, but lyrically speaks about finding the meaning of life with lyrics such as, “This life is hollow and mostly borrowed, the voices are screaming, but where is the meaning? Noisy crescendos behind closed windows.” The album moves further into exploring life’s meaning with “Native Tongue.” This upbeat song drives the message home through melodic tones, guitars, and lyrics such as, “love is your language, love is your native tongue.” Switchfoot has always seemed to want to bring unity through their music, and tracks like this are no different.

The third track on the album, “All I Need,” is more of a ballad in nature. It is still full of lyrical content speaking of needing love and connectedness, as the chorus rings out in Jon’s clear vocals: “All I need is the air I breathe, the time we share and the ground beneath my feet. All I need is the love that I believe in– tell me love, do you believe in me?

The fourth track kicks into overdrive. “Voices” seems ambiguous in its meaning at first listen, even if the music and lyrics do draw you in. The meaning can be found in the bridge: “every moment crowded with choices, speak to me and drown out the voices.” While it is not clear who the person is speaking in this line, one could think that it might be God, speaking through the noises of life, and a conscience trying to push through distractions.

The album moves to the fifth track, “Dig New Streams,” which is a completely different sound than the previous four tracks, leaving the listener wondering what the next track is going to entail. It also shows that Switchfoot is never one to play it safe musically or lyrically. This song once again speaks of love and unifying differing sides, something that is not unheard of on previous Switchfoot albums like Where the Light Shines Through with the song “Looking for America” or the track “Politicians” off of Nothing is Sound.

The sixth track shifts into an easy to love track, “Joy Invincible.” It is in a different gear than what has been heard in the previous five tracks. The vocals are ethereal when you hit the chorus, with lyrics like “Hallelujah nevertheless, was the song the pain couldn’t destroy. Hallelujah nevertheless, you’re my joy invincible.This song is one that makes you smile at its lighthearted sound and will be one that may end up being hummed after a listen. The next track, “The Hardest Art,” follows the same vein with a more melodic sound. This track is definitely a surprise from Switchfoot, as it is a different sound musically for them. Kaela Sinclair’s guest vocals marry well with Jon’s in this pop-synthesized track with some great lyrical content:

Every movie makes love seem easy
They fall in love like the fire burns.
And maybe I’m the only one,
but it feels like love is the hardest art to learn

The last seven tracks of this album follow the same pattern as the first seven tracks. They leave the listener guessing what will be next on this musical roller coaster of an album. You have driving tracks like “Can’t Take My Fire” and “We’re Gonna Be Alright,” while mixed in between are moving ballads like “The Strength to Let Go” and the album closer “You’re the One I Want.”

If fans of Switchfoot thought the first album out of hiatus was going be a rehashing of something already done in the band’s storied career, this album tells a different story. It tells a story of life, love, seeking, searching, and redemption. If this is the culmination of 23 years, it is exciting to see what the guys from San Diego, CA bring to their next album!

Listen to Native Tongue on Spotify and on Apple Music.

This review was contributed by Sharayah Franklin.

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